Chirogenesis in Solid State and Spontaneous Resolution

News: Chirality is a property of asymmetry resulting, for an object, from the non-superposition of its image in a mirror. The notion of symmetry breaking, inherent in the organization of matter, the formation of new structural edifices, and, more fundamentally, weak interactions, is omnipresent. From the physics of elementary particles to molecules of the living world and functional organisms, to climatic phenomena inducing vortices of forces, chirality often plays a crucial role. It is also a conception of geometry exploited in design fields and man-made constructions for its functionality and uniqueness. In this chapter, we will focus on the chirality observed in solid state matter, that is, chirality based on the solid state organization of atoms or molecules. While there can be an important overlap with inorganic chiral nanostructures or nanoparticles for which there are a number of reviews, the solid state matters treated in this chapter can include crystals as well as amorphous solids of both organic and inorganic molecules. As we will discuss below, the study of the chirality of solid materials has mainly been focused on asymmetric ordered and periodic structures. When atoms are considered as a repeating unit, chiral crystals of achiral molecules can be classified as 3D asymmetric periodic structures. Chiral crystal faces of centric crystals and chiral 2D patterns of achiral molecules can be classified as 2D asymmetric periodic structures. Individual helical polymeric chains, chiral carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles can be classified as 1D asymmetric periodic structures. We should also mention that chiral quasicrystals do not have mirror symmetry or translational symmetry, but have rotational symmetry, showing beautiful chiral ordered structures. We will also describe how chirality can be enhanced by the 2D or 3D organization of building components of solid materials. We will close with a discussion of spectroscopic methods to characterize chiral objects and assemblies. Reiko Oda, Peizhao Liu, Elizabeth Hillard, Patrick Rosa, Sylvain Nlate, Yutaka Okazaki, Emilie Pouget, Yann Battie and Thierry Buffeteau
Laboratory : CBMN, ISM, ICMCB, Université de Lorraine, Kyoto University